Javascript / Gremlin API


#1

The graph object

Alias: g

This is the only special object in the environment, generates the query objects. Under the hood, they’re simple objects that get compiled to a Go iterator tree when executed.

graph.Vertex([nodeId],[nodeId]...)

Alias: graph.V

Arguments:

  • nodeId (Optional): A string or list of strings representing the starting vertices.

Returns: Query object

Starts a query path at the given vertex/vertices. No ids means “all vertices”.

###graph.Morphism()

Alias: graph.M

Arguments: none

Returns: Path object

Creates a morphism path object. Unqueryable on it’s own, defines one end of the path. Saving these to variables with

var shorterPath = graph.Morphism().Out("foo").Out("bar")

is the common use case. See also: path.Follow(), path.FollowR()

###graph.Emit(data)

Arguments:

  • data: A Javascript object that can be serialized to JSON

Adds data programmatically to the JSON result list. Can be any JSON type.


#2

Path objects

Both .Morphism() and .Vertex() create path objects, which provide the following traversal methods. Note that .Vertex() returns a query object, which is a subclass of path object.

For these examples, suppose we have the following graph:

  +-------+                        +------+
  | alice |-----                 ->| fred |<--
  +-------+     \---->+-------+-/  +------+   \-+-------+
                ----->| #bob# |       |         |*emily*|
  +---------+--/  --->+-------+       |         +-------+
  | charlie |    /                    v
  +---------+   /                  +--------+
    \---    +--------+             |*#greg#*|
        \-->| #dani# |------------>+--------+
            +--------+

Where every link is a “follows” relationship, and the nodes with an extra # in the name have an extra status link. As in,

dani -- status --> cool_person

Perhaps these are the influencers in our community. So too are extra *s in the name – these are our smart people, according to the smart_graph label, eg, the quad:

greg status smart_person smart_graph .

To load above graph into cayley and reproduce the following examples:

./cayley repl --dbpath=data/testdata.nq for a REPL prompt, or•

./cayley http --dbpath=data/testdata.nq for the web frontend.

Basic Traversals

###path.Out([predicatePath], [tags])

Arguments:

  • predicatePath (Optional): One of:
    • null or undefined: All predicates pointing out from this node
    • a string: The predicate name to follow out from this node
      • a list of strings: The predicates to follow out from this node
      • a query path object: The target of which is a set of predicates to follow.
  • tags (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: No tags
    * a string: A single tag to add the predicate used to the output set.
    * a list of strings: Multiple tags to use as keys to save the predicate used to the output set.

Out is the work-a-day way to get between nodes, in the forward direction. Starting with the nodes in path on the subject, follow the quads with predicates defined by predicatePath to their objects.

Example:

// The working set of this is bob and dani
g.V("charlie").Out("follows")
// The working set of this is fred, as alice follows bob and bob follows fred.
g.V("alice").Out("follows").Out("follows")
// Finds all things dani points at. Result is bob, greg and cool_person
g.V("dani").Out()
// Finds all things dani points at on the status linkage.
// Result is bob, greg and cool_person
g.V("dani").Out(["follows", "status"])
// Finds all things dani points at on the status linkage, given from a separate query path.
// Result is {"id": cool_person, "pred": "status"}
g.V("dani").Out(g.V("status"), "pred")

###path.In([predicatePath], [tags])

Arguments:

  • predicatePath (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: All predicates pointing into this node
    * a string: The predicate name to follow into this node
    * a list of strings: The predicates to follow into this node
    * a query path object: The target of which is a set of predicates to follow.
  • tags (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: No tags
    * a string: A single tag to add the predicate used to the output set.
    * a list of strings: Multiple tags to use as keys to save the predicate used to the output set.

Same as Out, but in the other direction. Starting with the nodes in path on the object, follow the quads with predicates defined by predicatePath to their subjects.

Example:

// Find the cool people, bob, greg and dani
g.V("cool_person").In("status")
// Find who follows bob, in this case, alice, charlie, and dani
g.V("bob").In("follows")
// Find who follows the people emily follows, namely, emily and bob
g.V("emily").Out("follows").In("follows")

###path.Both([predicatePath], [tags])

Arguments:

  • predicatePath (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: All predicates pointing both into and out from this node
    * a string: The predicate name to follow both into and out from this node
    * a list of strings: The predicates to follow both into and out from this node
    * a query path object: The target of which is a set of predicates to follow.
  • tags (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: No tags
    * a string: A single tag to add the predicate used to the output set.
    * a list of strings: Multiple tags to use as keys to save the predicate used to the output set.
    Follow the predicate in either direction. Same as

Note: Less efficient, for the moment, as it’s implemented with an Or, but useful where necessary.

Example:

// Find all followers/followees of fred. Returns bob, emily and greg
g.V("fred").Both("follows")

###path.Is(node, [node..])

Arguments:

  • node: A string for a node. Can be repeated or a list of strings.

Filter all paths to ones which, at this point, are on the given node.

Example:

// Starting from all nodes in the graph, find the paths that follow bob.
// Results in three paths for bob (from alice, charlie and dani)
g.V().Out("follows").Is("bob")

path.Has(predicate, object)

Arguments:

  • predicate: A string for a predicate node.
  • object: A string for a object node.

Filter all paths which are, at this point, on the subject for the given predicate and object, but do not follow the path, merely filter the possible paths.

Usually useful for starting with all nodes, or limiting to a subset depending on some predicate/value pair.

Example:

// Start from all nodes that follow bob -- results in alice, charlie and dani
g.V().Has("follows", "bob")
// People charlie follows who then follow fred. Results in bob.
g.V("charlie").Out("follows").Has("follows", "fred")

path.LabelContext([labelPath], [tags])

Arguments:

  • predicatePath (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: In future traversals, consider all edges, regardless of subgraph.
    * a string: The name of the subgraph to restrict traversals to.
    * a list of strings: A set of subgraphs to restrict traversals to.
    * a query path object: The target of which is a set of subgraphs.
  • tags (Optional): One of:
    * null or undefined: No tags
    * a string: A single tag to add the last traversed label to the output set.
    * a list of strings: Multiple tags to use as keys to save the label used to the output set.

Sets (or removes) the subgraph context to consider in the following traversals. Affects all In(), Out(), and Both() calls that follow it. The default LabelContext is null (all subgraphs)
Example:

// Find the status of people Dani follows•
g.V("dani").Out("follows").Out("status")
// Find only the statuses provided by the smart_graph
g.V("dani").Out("follows").LabelContext("smart_graph").Out("status")
// Find all people followed by people with statuses in the smart_graph.
g.V().LabelContext("smart_graph").In("status").LabelContext(null).In("follows")

path.Limit(limit)

Arguments:

  • limit: A number of nodes to limit results to.

Limits a number of nodes for current path.

Example:

// Start from all nodes that follow bob, and limit them to 2 nodes -- results in alice and charlie
g.V().Has("follows", "bob").Limit(2)

path.Skip(offset)

Arguments:

  • offset: A number of nodes to skip.

Skips a number of nodes for current path.

Example:

// Start from all nodes that follow bob, and skip 2 nodes -- results in dani
g.V().Has("follows", "bob").Skip(2)

###path.InPredicates()

Get the list of predicates that are pointing in to a node

Example:

// bob only has "follows" predicates pointing inward
// returns "follows"
g.V("bob").InPredicates()

###path.OutPredicates()

Get the list of predicates that are pointing out from a node

Example:

// bob has "follows" and "status" edges pointing outwards
// returns "follows", "status"
g.V("bob").OutPredicates()

Tagging

path.Tag(tag)

Alias: path.As

Arguments:

  • tag: A string or list of strings to act as a result key. The value for tag was the vertex the path was on at the time it reached “Tag”

In order to save your work or learn more about how a path got to the end, we have tags. The simplest thing to do is to add a tag anywhere you’d like to put each node in the result set.

Example:

// Start from all nodes, save them into start, follow any status links, and return the result.
// Results are: {"id": "cool_person", "start": "bob"}, {"id": "cool_person", "start": "greg"}, {"id": "cool_person", "start": "dani"}
g.V().Tag("start").Out("status")

path.Back(tag)

Arguments:

  • tag: A previous tag in the query to jump back to.

If still valid, a path will now consider their vertex to be the same one as the previously tagged one, with the added constraint that it was valid all the way here. Useful for traversing back in queries and taking another route for things that have matched so far.

Example:

// Start from all nodes, save them into start, follow any status links, jump back to the starting node, and find who follows them. Return the result.
// Results are:
//   {"id": "alice", "start": "bob"},
//   {"id": "charlie", "start": "bob"},
//   {"id": "dani", "start": "bob"},
//   {"id": "charlie", "start": "dani"},
//   {"id": "dani", "start": "greg"}
g.V().Tag("start").Out("status").Back("start").In("follows")

path.Save(predicate, tag)

Arguments:

  • predicate: A string for a predicate node.
  • tag: A string for a tag key to store the object node.

From the current node as the subject, save the object of all quads with predicate into tag, without traversal.

Example:

// Start from dani and bob and save who they follow into "target"
// Returns:
//   {"id" : "dani", "target": "bob" },
//   {"id" : "dani", "target": "greg" },
//   {"id" : "bob", "target": "fred" },
g.V("dani", "bob").Save("follows", "target")

Joining

path.Intersect(query)

Alias: path.And

Arguments:

  • query: Another query path, the result sets of which will be intersected

Filters all paths by the result of another query path (efficiently computed).

This is essentially a join where, at the stage of each path, a node is shared.
Example:

var cFollows = g.V("charlie").Out("follows")
var dFollows = g.V("dani").Out("follows")
// People followed by both charlie (bob and dani) and dani (bob and greg) -- returns bob.
cFollows.Intersect(dFollows)
// Equivalently, g.V("charlie").Out("follows").And(g.V("dani").Out("follows"))

path.Union(query)

Alias: path.Or

Arguments:

  • query: Another query path, the result sets of which will form a union

Given two queries, returns the combined paths of the two queries.
Notice that it’s per-path, not per-node. Once again, if multiple paths reach the
same destination, they might have had different ways of getting there (and different tags).
See also: path.Tag()

Example:

var cFollows = g.V("charlie").Out("follows")
var dFollows = g.V("dani").Out("follows")
// People followed by both charlie (bob and dani) and dani (bob and greg) -- returns bob (from charlie), bob (from dani), dani and greg.
cFollows.Union(dFollows)

path.Except(query)

Alias: path.Difference

Arguments:

  • query: Another query path, the result sets of which will be intersected and negated

Removes all paths which match query from path.

In a set-theoretic sense, this is (A - B). While g.V().Except(path) to achieve U - B = !B is supported, it’s often very slow.

Example:

var cFollows = g.V("charlie").Out("follows")
var dFollows = g.V("dani").Out("follows")
// People followed by both charlie (bob and dani) and dani (bob and greg) -- returns bob.
cFollows.Except(dFollows)   // The set (dani) -- what charlie follows that dani does not also follow.
// Equivalently, g.V("charlie").Out("follows").Except(g.V("dani").Out("follows"))

Using Morphisms

path.Follow(morphism)

Arguments:

  • morphism: A morphism path to follow

With graph.Morphism we can prepare a path for later reuse. Follow is the way that’s accomplished.
Applies the path chain on the morphism object to the current path.

Starts as if at the g.M() and follows through the morphism path.

Example:

dog

friendOfFriend = g.Morphism().Out("follows").Out("follows")
// Returns the followed people of who charlie follows -- a simplistic "friend of my friend"
// and whether or not they have a "cool" status. Potential for recommending followers abounds.
// Returns bob and greg
g.V("charlie").Follow(friendOfFriend).Has("status", "cool_person")

path.FollowR(morphism)

Arguments:

  • morphism: A morphism path to follow

Same as Follow but follows the chain in the reverse direction. Flips “In” and “Out” where appropriate,
the net result being a virtual predicate followed in the reverse direction.

Starts at the end of the morphism and follows it backwards (with appropriate flipped directions) to the g.M() location.

Example:

friendOfFriend = g.Morphism().Out("follows").Out("follows")
// Returns the third-tier of influencers -- people who follow people who follow the cool people.
// Returns emily, bob, charlie (from bob) and charlie (from greg)
g.V().Has("status", "cool_person").FollowR(friendOfFriend)

Gremlin API - joining on predicate values
#3

Query objects (finals)

Only .Vertex() objects – that is, queries that have somewhere to start – can be turned into queries. To actually execute the queries, an output step must be applied.

query.All()

Arguments: None

Returns: undefined

Executes the query and adds the results, with all tags, as a string-to-string (tag to node) map in the output set, one for each path that a traversal could take.

query.GetLimit(size)

Arguments:

  • size: An integer value on the first size paths to return.

Returns: undefined

Same as all, but limited to the first size unique nodes at the end of the path, and each of their possible traversals.

query.ToArray()

Arguments: None

Returns: Array

Executes a query and returns the results at the end of the query path.
Example:

// bobFollowers contains an Array of followers of bob (alice, charlie, dani).
var bobFollowers = g.V("bob").In("follows").ToArray()

query.ToValue()

Arguments: None

Returns: String

As .ToArray above, but limited to one result node – a string. Like .Limit(1) for the above case (alice).

query.TagArray()

Arguments: None

Returns: Array of string-to-string objects

As .ToArray above, but instead of a list of top-level strings, returns an Array of tag-to-string dictionaries, much as .All would, except inside the Javascript environment.
Example:

// bobFollowers contains an Array of followers of bob (alice, charlie, dani).
var bobFollowers = g.V("bob").Tag("name").In("follows").ToArray()
// nameValue should be the string "bob"
var nameValue = bobTags[0]["name"]

query.TagValue()

Arguments: None

Returns: A single string-to-string object

As .TagArray above, but limited to one result node – a string. Like .Limit(1) for the above case. Returns a tag-to-string map.

query.ForEach(callback), query.ForEach(limit, callback)

Alias: query.Map

Arguments:

  • limit (Optional): An integer value on the first limit paths to process.
  • callback: A javascript function of the form function(data)

Returns: undefined

For each tag-to-string result retrieved, as in the All case, calls callback(data) where data is the tag-to-string map.

Example:

// Simulate query.All()
graph.V("foo").ForEach(function(d) { g.Emit(d) } )